Chitiyo, Zagumny, Akenson, Littrell, Davis, Besnoy, (2019). “The Alabama Chess in Schools Programme.” University of Alabama. January 2019. This large study looked at the academic achievement of children in the Alabama Chess in Schools Programme. It showed that children in the intervention group in the lower grades (aged 9-11) achieved noticeably higher academic scores than those in the control group. This included gains in Affective Decision & Judgment Processes, Systems Thinking, Cross-Disciplinary Thinking, and Overall Engagement. The majority of teachers felt their students benefited socially (81%) and academically (73%) from the use of chess in instruction. 71% of the teachers enjoyed teaching through chess.